Mike Rozier Heisman Trophy Winner 1983

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NeuroEntrain Sciences, LLC gives the concept of MIND OVER MATTER new meaning.  By guiding the brain into various desired states, combined with the benefits of whole body vibration History & Science behind Whole-Body Vibration and tactile entrainment, you will experience a novel feeling of wellbeing  The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is comprised of the Sympathetic (fright & flight) and the Parasympathetic Nervous system, is our master control program that operates our bodies, behind the scene. 

In our modern day life, research has shown that most of us are locked into Sympathetic Dominant mode (fright & flight) with the adrenalin system at high expression.  While an inherited safety in times of danger, this state was meant to be brief.  During extended periods this stresses the body.  Medical studies are constantly illustrating that STRESS KILLS!  The deleterious processes either are a root cause or exacerbate many diseases.  Stress lowers our immune response.

Our NeuroVoyages help in balancing the ANS and helps to break the stress cycle. 

NES has developed its NeuroVoyager TM System products to deliver the most amazing benefits across our spectrum of products.  This website like our NeuroVoyager TM Systems is constantly evolving to give both the Professional and Consumer users of our products the best access to the knowledge base behind our art and science as well as our own research and pipeline development.

The brain is made up of billions of brain cells.  These cells are called neurons.  They communicate with each other and other cells and systems in the body by an electro-chemical process.  The activity of these neurons can be analyzed using a technique of Electroencephalography (EEG).  

The human brain has an ability to change its dominant EEG frequency towards the frequency of the dominant external stimulus; this is known as the “frequency following response”. The stimulus that creates this response can be visual, tactile or aural. The image below shows the EEG for the brains frequencies before and after being a played a tones at a frequencies of 10Hz.

The various processes that guide a person’s brainwave frequency to match or synchronize with an external stimulus is known as brainwave entrainment

 

The most well-known form of brainwave entrainment is binaural beats, where a slightly different tone is presented into each ear. When pure tones are mixed together, their waveforms add and subtract from one another, resulting in a pulse. In the case of binaural beats, the two tones are mixed by the brain itself (one in each ear). The pulses (called "beats") formed by mixing these tones is what causes entrainment to occur. As you learned in the entrainment section, brainwaves are affected by rapid pulses of sound, light, tactile or other sensory stimuli.

But since any kind of pulse can be used to entrain the brain there are many other, more effective methods that allow more control than binaural beats.  We maximize the effect by combining entrainment technologies and using the various neural pathways, hearing, visual and touch.


EEG Recording. Spectrogram View (4-30), ~1.2 minute time lapse, middle of an Alpha session.

One is Isochronic tones, where a tone is manually spaced, turning on and off in a precise pattern. Another is called "Photic Driving", which involves doing the same thing with light, using LED Optic Stim (Light Glasses) or a flashing screen (like a strobe light). Clicks, drums, physical vibrations and even electric pulses can be used to entrain the brain. In fact, photic, tactile and click-based entrainments were discovered long before binaural beats. Today, there are even more complex methods for embedding pulses into music and white noise.

Some entrainment methods do not rely on speaker assignments, and therefore can be used without headphones or any special speaker assignments

Monaural beats can be used very effectively without headphones. So can pulses, clicks and light stimulation. In fact, many ancient cultures used Drums to enter deeply relaxed 'trances' during Shamanic rituals. Though they may not have called it brainwave entrainment, the rhythmic stimulus of the drum could have been the cause of the "trance-like" states reported during such rituals.

NeuroVoyager Systems utilize all known forms of Audio and Visual and Tactile entrainment, including Isochronic Tones, Monaural & Binaural Beats, Modulations, and Optic Stim Glasses for photic stimulation.

The NeuroVoyage sessions have been meticulously designed to produce the greatest neural response during EEG tests. In order for the brain to be effectively entrained, every pulse or "beat" must leave an individual electrical imprint on the brain, called a Cortical Evoked Response. To do that, the depth or "intensity" of the pulse must be as large and abrupt as possible.

Below is an example of an Isochronic entrainment pattern. Notice how individual and separated each pulse is.

This type of stimulation produces incredibly powerful electrical responses in the brain, more noticeable than any other form of stimulation. But, other methods do have their advantages. Entrainment can be effectively embedded into music and white noise, greatly enriching the entrainment experience, and usually creating a more pleasant, relaxing experience. Below is an example of a single filter (volume modulation) applied to music:

Although the pulses are not as individual, they are consistent and large enough to have a significant impact on the brain.
We incorporate a process called frequency-band selection, where you can select a specific band of frequencies in a sound file to modulate. This makes modulation effects more subtle - more pleasant to the ear. It does this while also increasing the effectiveness by allowing higher intensity levels.

Binaural beats have become very popular over the years, so much so that for many people the idea of "brainwave entrainment" is inseparable from them. But there are many other ways to stimulate the brain, many of which are more effective.
We use more methods than just binaural beats for many reasons:

1) Binaural beats require headphones or special speaker assignments.

2) Binaural beats are not capable of entraining the brain hemispheres individually (because they require BOTH ears). This can be a major disadvantage because many of the modern entrainment protocols used in clinical work today involve separate stimulation to each ear, useful for deeper meditation and especially for cognitive enhancement.

3) Binaural beats are not as effective as more modern entrainment methods, though they do remain the most interesting. Dr. Gerald Oster, in the 1973 issue of "Scientific American", introduced binaural beats to the main stream. According to Oster, because of the way the brain processes binaural beats, the depth or intensity of the resulting "beat" is only around 3db, or 1/10th the volume of a whisper (which is why the "beats" are usually so hard to detect). He concluded that binaural beats produced very small evoked potentials within the auditory cortex of the brain, while monaural beats and other methods produced far greater potentials.

In the brain, a binaural beat would look something like this:

Notice how shallow the wave is. The above pulse would be barely detectable. On the other hand, a monaural beat, or sine wave pulse, looks like this:

Which do you think will leave more of an electrical imprint on the brain, based on what we know about cortical potentials? It is because of these differences that it has been concluded by many researchers, such as David Siever, that binaural beats are not likely to produce much actual brainwave entrainment at all.
Yet many studies have shown that binaural beats do produce a limited amount of brainwave entrainment. A study done by Dale Foster (Memphis State University, 1990) showed that binaural beats do entrain the brain. Unfortunately, the beats did not produce any more of the target brainwave (alpha) than an artificially generated surf sound, which was acting as a control. This study shows that while binaural beats can be useful, additional techniques are needed to entrain the brain to the levels most people need. This is why we use a total combination of entrainment technologies in the NeuroVoyager Systems.  We obtain the benefits of hemispheric synchronization from the binaural beats.

Hemispheric Synchronization is a byproduct of nearly all types of brainwave entrainment.

In 1980, Tsuyoshi Inouye and associates at the Department of Neuropsychiatry at Osaka University Medical School in Japan found that photic stimulation in the alpha range produced hemispheric synchronization. In 1984, Dr. Brockopp analyzed audio-visual brain stimulation and in particular hemispheric synchronization during EEG monitoring. He said "By inducing hemispheric coherence the machine can contribute to improved intellectual functioning of the brain."

Aural: The use of hearing allows for various sounds (including music) and vibrations to affect the brain. 

Photic:  The use of light and visual cues to affect the brain

Tactile:  Activation of the various sensory nerves in the skin and body to affect the brain.

Whole Body Vibrational Therapy: The use of a single or various frequencies applied to the whole body.

Audio Visual Stimulation (AVS) is a powerful combined modality.

The NES NeuroVoyager Systems incorporate an interwoven and combined entrainment modality of Photic (Optical Stim), Aural (sound and music), Tactile (touch) and Whole Body Vibration.

Brainwave patterns have been associated various mind states, or states of consciousness. Since then they have divided the brainwaves into four predominant speed ranges, or types Alpha, Beta, Delta and Theta.  There are sub categories and others that are lessor known.  The brain is constantly emitting nearly every type of brainwave. However, based on the strength of certain bands of brainwaves a person can be said to be "in" a certain brainwave or band.

State

Frequency Range

Characteristics

Lambda

~200Hz

Self awareness, higher levels of insight and information. Tibetan monks have exhibited high levels of these. They are difficult to measure and little is known about them. They are carried on the very slow moving Epsilon Waves (<0.5Hz).

Hyper Gamma

~100Hz

Gamma

38 - 90Hz

Important in harmonizing and unifying thoughts processed in different parts of the brain. Combines different perceptions. Essential for complex motor processes. Suppressed totally by anesthetic. Found in all regions of the brain.

Beta (High)

18 - 38Hz

Wide awake, alert, focused, analyses and assimilates new information rapidly, complex mental processing, peak physical and mental performance, cannot be sustained indefinitely otherwise exhaustion, anxiety, and tension result.

 Beta (Mid range)

15Hz-18Hz

Wide awake and alert behavior.

 Beta (Low)

12 - 15Hz

Also known as Sensory Motor Rhythm (SMR) - vigilance, reduced mobility, shallow breathing, less blinking, fixed attention and eye focus, enhanced it has a calming effect.

Beta-Alpha

12Hz

Hyper-efficient in processing single tasks as the brain can focus on the details as well as the overall task at the same time

Alpha

7.5 - 12Hz

Mental coordination and resourcefulness, relaxation, alert but not mentally processing anything, inward focus, calmness, at ease, deep breathing and closed eyes can amplify alpha wave production, peaks around 10Hz.

Alpha-Theta

7.48Hz

Schumann frequency. Stimulates retrieval of memories from the subconscious. (This is the natural vibrational frequency of the ionosphere in the earth’s atmosphere)

Theta

4 - 7.5Hz

Associated with memory access, learning, deep meditation, sensations, emotions, the threshold of the subconscious, dreaming.

6.2 - 6.7Hz

Cognitive activity, sustained attention, low anxiety

4.5Hz

Associated with many altered consciousness states.  Shamanic trances, Tibetan mantras and Buddhist chants use this frequency to access trance states

Theta-Delta

~3.5Hz

Long term memory access

Delta

0.5 - 4Hz

Deep sleep, human growth hormone release, low blood pressure, low respiration, low body temperature. No muscle movement - Reticular Activating System (RAS) shuts this down.

Epsilon

<0.5Hz

As with Lambda and HyperGamma waves, less is known about these states due to the rarity of observing them.

 

Peer Review Literature


Contact Details

Mal Hollander

Partner, President
malh@neuroentrainsciences.com
609-204-2740

Marvin Frazier

Partner, Marketing Director
marvfrazierbronco86@neuroentrainsciences.com
609-504-3776

Mosheh Math

Partner, Customer Service
moshehmath@neuroentrainsciences.com
609-790-2729

 

 


Disclaimer: Statements made have not been evaluated by the FDA, and are not intended to diagnose, treat or cure any medical condition of whatever nature, and shall not be construed as medical advice, implied or otherwise. 
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